Matthew’s Gospel is excellent ‘textbook’ on Jesus’ teachings

| Father Michael Van Sloun | September 11, 2013 | 1 Comment
St. Matthew is depicted in a stained-glass window. As author of the first Gospel, Matthew is often depicted with a tablet. His feast day is Sept. 21.  CNS photo/Crosiers

St. Matthew is depicted in a stained-glass window. As author of the first Gospel, Matthew is often depicted with a tablet. His feast day is Sept. 21. CNS photo/Crosiers

St. Matthew was an apostle and an evangelist.

Matthew was also known as Levi, the son of Alphaeus (Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27). He was born in Capernaum, a fishing village on the northwest side of the Sea of Galilee, and he worked at a nearby border crossing as a customs agent where it was his job to collect a toll or duty on all of the people, animals and goods.

These “toll collectors” or “tax collectors” were very unpopular with average Jewish citizens because they were viewed as greedy and corrupt, and they regularly overcharged and pocketed the difference for themselves.

They were also viewed as traitors because they consorted with the Romans, who were despised as pagans and an unwelcome foreign presence in their homeland.

‘Follow me’

On one occasion when Jesus was walking along the north shore of the lake, he came to the toll booth where Matthew was stationed. Jesus paused, looked at him, and said, “Follow me” (Matthew 9:9).

It was shocking that Jesus would call someone so scorned by so many to be one of his apostles, and equally shocking that Matthew would accept the invitation — leaving his family, friends, job, income, and security, all to follow Jesus without a moment’s delay.

Then Jesus shared a dinner with him in his home (Matthew 9:10). Matthew is mentioned only four other times in the New Testament, always on a list of the apostles (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13).

After the Ascension, Matthew receives no further attention in the New Testament. According to tradition, after Pentecost Matthew began his missionary work in Judea, but accounts of his other destinations vary. Some say “the East,” including Syria and Persia; others Europe, maybe Macedonia, possibly as far as Ireland. His final destination most likely was Ethiopia, where tradition says he was martyred, first crucified on a T-shaped cross and then beheaded with an ax.

Matthew also was an evangelist, or the author of a Gospel. His Gospel was composed around A.D. 85 and intended for a Jewish-Christian audience. One of his major literary purposes was to present Jesus as the fulfillment of the Hebrew Scriptures. His book has 28 chapters, which makes it the longest of the four Gospels, and for centuries it has been considered the best textbook or catechism for teaching about Jesus and the Christian faith.

Various symbols

Matthew is represented by a number of symbols in Christian art. As a money collector, he is represented by a coin purse, a treasure chest, one or three money bags, or a scale which was used to weigh gold; as a Gospel writer, he is represented by a quill pen, a scroll, or a book; as an author guided by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, there may be a dove or rays of light; and as a martyr, he is sometimes represented by a spear or a sword, but more often by a battle ax, the weapon used to behead him Ethiopia.

The symbol for Matthew’s Gospel is a human being with wings, “the divine man,” because his Gospel includes Jesus’ genealogy (Matthew 1:1-17) and gives special attention to Jesus’ human nature. The image is also drawn from Ezekiel’s vision of the four living creatures (Ezekiel 1:9-10).

Matthew is the patron saint of tax collectors, customs officers, security guards, accountants, bookkeepers, bankers, financial officers, money managers, stock brokers and money changers.

Father Van Sloun is pastor of St. Bartholomew in Wayzata.

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